In this work, G.A. Swanson and Hugh Marsh present an interpretive and analytical study of the function of internal auditing, not only from the viewpoint of its role in an organization, but also in regard to the role it plays in the economics of societies and governments. They create a theory of internal auditing and place it within the context of a scientific conceptual framework called Living Systems Theory. Using this approach, they are able to provide a basis for developing a systematic theoretical framework of internal auditing, as well as a theory based on observable, measurable entities. The book begins with a survey of the auditing profession and an introduction to the basic principles of the Living Systems Theory. From this base, Swanson and Marsh discuss a series of specific issues and areas of concern in internal auditing, including its functions, profession, and history, and its professional standards. Subsequent chapters address such topics as money-information, non-monetary quantitative information, estimating compound measurement and forecasting error, non-quantitative assessments, concrete process analysis and living systems process analysis, and ethics. Throughout the book, Swanson and Marsh identify the advantages of using the living systems theory to advance the knowledge and understanding of organizations, and also propose a higher level of internal audit functions that can advance modern societies. This work will be an important tool for members of the accounting and auditing professions, for students of business and accounting practices, and for professionals in other business and finance positions.
This text is about survival-about surviving an OSHA audit. It's a road map through the process, a template, a user-friendly how-to-do-it manual that should be part of any OSHA-regulated facility's survival package. Will it help readers survive an OSHA audit? It can't hurt-and if they follow it, it will help.
Like speech, the species-specific vocalizations or calls of non-human primates mediate social interactions, convey important emotional information, and in some cases refer to objects and events in the caller's environment. These functional similarities suggest that the selective pressures which shaped primate vocal communication are similar to those that influenced the evolution of human speech. As such, investigating the perception and production of vocalizations in extant non-human primates provides one avenue for understanding the neural mechanisms of speech and for illuminating the substrates underlying the evolution of human language.
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